Category: Main

August 2018

1. Greater Pittsburgh Arts Council. “Racial Equity and Arts Funding in Greater Pittsburgh.” 2018. United States.

“Racial Equity and Arts Funding in Greater Pittsburgh” is the result of a yearlong study of hundreds of arts organizations, primary data from 20 local funders (public and private), and secondary data from publicly available resources. The research was convened by a group of 12 local arts leaders, researchers and funders who formed the Learning and Leadership Committee under the auspices of the Greater Pittsburgh Arts Council. This Committee, a group comprised primarily of people of color, informed the core questions, frameworks, and context for the research, which was conducted by the Greater Pittsburgh Arts Council. The report reveals a stark contrast between funding for White-majority organizations and ALAANA organizations, with key findings including disparities in the number of arts grants, total amounts of funds, and the average amount of grant dollars received by ALAANA organizations* when compared with White/Non-Hispanic organizations.

 

2. Zannie Giraud Voss and Glenn Voss. National Center for Arts Research. “Arts Vibrancy Index (2018).” United States.

In this report, we highlight and celebrate communities of every size and in every region that have cultivated higher levels of arts activity per person living in the community. We use the term “vibrancy” in keeping with Merriam-Webster’s definition of the word to mean “pulsating with life, vigor, or activity.” To assess arts vibrancy across America, we incorporate multiple measures under three main rubrics: supply, demand, and public support for arts and culture on a per capita basis. We gauge supply as total arts providers, demand with measures of total nonprofit arts dollars in the community, and public support as state and federal arts funding. We use multiple measures since vibrancy can manifest in many ways.

 

3. Carole Rosenstein. “Understanding Cultural Policy.” 2018. United States.

Understanding Cultural Policy provides a practical, comprehensive introduction to thinking about how and why governments intervene in the arts and culture. Cultural policy expert Carole Rosenstein examines the field through comparative, historical, and administrative lenses, while engaging directly with the issues and tensions that plague policy-makers across the world, including issues of censorship, culture-led development, cultural measurement, and globalization.

 

4. Kirsty Hoyle, Melanie Sharpe, and Matthew Cock. Arts Council England. “State of Theatre Access 2017.” United Kingdom.

In 2016, VocalEyes published the State of Museum Access 2016 report presenting the results of an audit of 1700 UK museum websites: based on the premise that a lack of access information contributed significantly to lower attendance among disabled people. It cited evidence that disabled people rely on pre-visit information far more than non-disabled people; using a venue’s website is a vital step in the decision-making / planning process. The absence of useful access information lowers people’s confidence that barriers to access will be addressed at the venue itself, and they may change their mind about visiting, feeling excluded from the venue’s target audience. This report applies the same principle and audit methodology, with our researchers visiting the websites of 659 professional theatres, all of which programme performing arts, auditing their access information, and any mention of access services or resources. We omitted from the survey amateur, school and college theatres, and those whose programming was predominantly live music, film or stand-up comedy.

 

5. Ben Walmsley. Poetics. “From Arts Marketing to Audience Enrichment.” 2016. United Kingdom.

The paper describes a project that used a bespoke online platform to allow the public to commission, interact with and reflect upon two dance performances at Yorkshire Dance in Leeds, a city in northern England. The research was interested in knowing how the platform might deepen audience engagement, break down barriers to attendance, demystify the creative process, and enhance people’s appreciation of the work. Overall, they found that the platform was a powerful way to move audience engagement beyond something ‘transactional’ or momentary into a deeper and more reflective encounter. However, this only worked for a small sample of the participants, as many dropped out of the study, while some others felt that it prevented them from experiencing the more ‘instinctive’ responses they were hoping to get from the work in its finished form. Overall, the research found that those who might gain most from engaging with the platform were those least likely to use it.

July 2018

1. Jill Hanley and Sandra D. Sjollema. Community Development Journal. “When Words Arrive: A Qualitative Study of Poetry as a Community Development Tool.” 2014. Canada.

Poetry, among the arts, remains understudied as a means for community development. To address this scarcity, this paper considers the use of poetry as a community development tool and discusses its uniqueness in this role. It offers a description and analysis of an exploratory, qualitative research study carried out with twelve respondents in Montreal, Canada, who participated in community-based creative writing groups. Evaluation suggested that, overall, the poetry groups made a positive contribution to community building and development. This paper locates the study in the context of community development and the arts and includes references to poetry therapy and social action-based creative writing. It also raises questions as to why poetry has not found its place on the agenda of arts-based community development.

 

2. Hidde Bekhuis, Natascha Notten, and Gerbert Kraaykamp. Cultural Trends. “Highbrow Cultural Participation of Turks and Moroccans in the Netherlands.” 2015. The Netherlands.

Focusing on Turkish and Moroccan communities, this paper examines educational attainment (highest level reached), national identification (the extent to which migrants identified with the Netherlands) and social integration (number of Dutch friends) as possible factors to explain why these communities are less likely than to engage in highbrow cultural activities. As expected, highly educated migrants and those in full-time education attended highbrow cultural events more often than other migrants. More identification with Dutch society led to more cultural engagement. Migrants with social networks containing more Dutch friends and more highly education friends were more likely to engage in highbrow culture. Of these factors, the level of education was the most important in determining highbrow cultural engagement.

 

3. Arlene Goldbard. U.S. Department of Arts and Culture. “Art Became Oxygen: An Artistic Response Guide.” 2017. United States.

As natural disasters and social emergencies multiply, the need has grown for ethical, creative, and effective artistic response—arts-based work responding to disaster or other community-wide emergency, much of it created in collaboration with community members directly affected. Art Became The Oxygen was created to engage readers who share the intention of offering care and compassion and helping to create possibility in the midst or wake of crisis.

 

4. Shelley Trott and Gina Acebo. Creative Equity Research Partners. “Mapping Small Arts and Culture Organizations of Color in Oakland.” 2018. United States.

This project was commissioned by Akonadi Foundation and the Kenneth Rainin Foundation to address the lack of research on small, grassroots arts and culture organizations serving communities of color in Oakland, California. This research investigates the specificity of this sector of the ecosystem—its geography, existing infrastructure, assets, and challenges. By aggregating and analyzing the limited data on these organizations, interviewing a diverse cohort of stakeholders, and gathering existing research on organizations of color and the informal arts sector, this research project takes a first step toward understanding a complex and vibrant sector that builds social bonds, addresses community needs, and contributes to a strong sense of place in Oakland.

 

5. Alan Kay. Community Development Journal. “Art and Community Development: the Role the Arts have in Regenerating Communities.” 2000. United Kingdom.

The arts are often considered to be at the periphery of the community development process and only a minor player in regenerating areas. Despite increasing globalization, communities are beginning to recognize their own identity, culture, traditional art forms and the value of working together at a local level. This paper is based on a recent study which shows that the arts have a role in regeneration and at a local level can be used as a tool within a wider community development programme.

June 2018

1. Susannah Laramee Kidd and Sara Daleiden. Los Angeles County Arts Commission. “Civic Art as Infrastructure.” 2018. United States.

This report and documentary is an evaluation of a range of outcomes at the four sites in the Creative Graffiti Abatement Project at two parks and libraries in the 2nd Supervisorial District of L.A. The report evaluates the success of arts-based strategies in shifting perceptions, increasing positive activity, reducing graffiti vandalism, building a sense of community ownership and building capacity for future arts and culture activities at the sites. Ultimately, the report highlights the role of embedding meaningful engagement activities in public art as an important aspect of government investment in communities.

 

2. Yuha Jung. The Journal of Arts Management, Law & Society. “Economic Discussion of Conflict between Public Education Policies and Common Good Arts in the United States.” 2018. United States.

Arts education in the United States, especially in public schools, has been neglected and its public funding has decreased. This is partly due to the difference in the conception of public education policies and the arts. The theory of economic goods and an analysis of two current education policies demonstrate that public education is treated as a public good that is needed by all people, and therefore funded with tax dollars. Because the arts are common goods that different people value in their own terms, education in the arts is treated as nonessential and funded sporadically in public school settings. Based on the theory of the commons, the author suggests that nonprofit arts organizations are equipped to deal with the common good and diverse nature of the arts and can provide sustainable arts education that fills the gap of arts education in public schools.

3. Rebecca Thomas and Zannie Voss. National Center for Arts Research at SMU. “Five Steps to Healthier Working Capital.” 2018. United States.

In its “Working Capital Report,” NCAR found on average, arts and culture organizations had working capital equivalent to five months’ worth of total expenses. While this might seem like a comfortable cushion, it reflects very high levels of working capital concentrated among a minority of institutions. Working capital levels varied by arts and cultural sectors. Skewed by large institutions, art museums had average working capital of more than one year, while orchestras on average had only approximately 15 days of working capital.

 

4. Pieter de Rooij and Marcel Bastiaansen. The Journal of Arts Management, Law & Society. “Understanding and Measuring Consumption Motives in the Performing Arts.” 2017. The Netherlands.

This study sought to understand and categorise the reasons why people visit performing arts events, as well as develop a way to measure these motivations. In-depth interviews were conducted with theatre-goers and a review of the literature was undertaken. This then informed a questionnaire which was completed by people attending a classical music concert. The results show that there is both a cultural and social side to attending performing arts events.

 

5. Daniel Wheatley and Craig Bickerton. Journal of Cultural Economics. “Subjective Well-Being and Engagement in Arts, Culture and Sport.”  2017. United Kingdom.

This study explored the relationship between an individual’s self-assessment of their overall wellbeing and taking part in arts, cultural and sporting activities. Social survey data from 40,000 UK households was collected in 2010-2011 and analysed to identify measures of wellbeing defined as satisfaction with life, leisure time, job and general happiness. They found that engagement in most arts, culture and sport activities is associated with greater life and leisure satisfaction and general happiness.

May 2018

1. Alexandre Frenette. The Journal of Arts Management, Law, and Society. “The Rise of Creative Placemaking.” 2017. United States.

This article situates the emergence of the creative placemaking policy initiative as the coordinated continuation of longstanding artistic practices and a reaction to scant funding in the United States.

 

2. Anita McKeown. Seismopolitie Journal of Art and Politics. “Creative Placemaking: How to embed Arts-led processes within cultural regeneration?” 2016. Norway.

Trialled in London, Ireland and the U.S.A. by an itinerant artist-in-residence, this summary outlines the emergence of creative placemaking and the aims of ASU’s research; to enshrine the dynamic, emergent and ethical qualities of permaculture design within a Situated Arts Practice to contributes to the on-going evolution of creative placemaking.

 

3. Marian Stuiver, Pat van der Jagt, Eugene van Erven, and Isabel Hoving. Community Development Journal. “The Potentials of Art to Involve Citizens in Regional Transitions.” 2013. The Netherlands.

In this article, researches asked whether artwork based on narratives and created in collaboration between artists and local residents can help planners achieve a more community-based process for planning.

 

4. Anna Muessig, Jamie Hand, et al. Cultural Research Network. “Impacts of Creative Placemaking.” 2017. Virtual Study Group.

On July 11th, the Cultural Research Network hosted a webinar about the impacts of Creative Placemaking, which included a review of ArtPlace’s research findings. These findings involved nearly two years of a comprehensive, multi-year research initiative to unearth promising practices and trends at the intersection of community development sectors with arts and culture.

 

5. Tom Andrews, Catherine Bunting, Tina Corri, and Sarah Fox. People United. “Changing the World through Arts and Kindness.” 2017. United Kingdom.

In this report, People United explores how the arts can inspire kindness, community and social change. The report brings together 10 years of research to show that the arts can play a role in building a kinder, more caring society.

April 2018

1. Yuliya Shymko and Thomas J. Roulet. Academy of Management Journal. “When does Medici hurt DaVinci?” Russia. 2016.

Does corporate philanthropy have an indiscriminately positive effect on recipients? Our baseline argument asserts that relationships with stakeholders outside the field, such as corporate donors, can be perceived as a deviation from the dominant logic at the industry level, and thus as a negative signal by peers. How can recipients mitigate this adverse effect on social evaluations? To answer this question, the authors study how corporate benefaction affects the process of peer recognition in the context of Russian theaters from 2004 to 2011.

 

2. MTM London. Nesta. “Repayable finance in the arts and culture sector.” 2018. United Kingdom.

This research was undertaken by market research agency MTM London into the current and future demand for repayable finance in the UK’s arts and cultural sector. Over 1,000 organisations from across the country took part, 70 per cent of which were asset-locked entities such as charities and community interest companies.

 

3. Wesley Mendes Da-Silva, et.al. Journal of Cultural Economics. “The impacts of fundraising periods and geographic distance on financing music production via crowdfunding in Brazil.” 2016. Brazil.

This paper examined crowdfunded music projects in Brazil. By using an online platform, crowdfunding has the potential to overcome geographic barriers and the limitations of entrepreneurs’ existing social networks.

 

4. Ian David Moss. Createquity. “The Last Word: Recommendations for Arts Philanthropists.” 2017. United States.

This article summarizes lessons learned, as well as recommendations going forward for foundations, government agencies, individual philanthropists, and others providing resources to support the arts.

 

5. HM Government. “Creative Industries: sector deal.” 2018. United Kingdom.

Led by the Creative Industries Council and with critical input from the Creative Industries Federation and other leading voices across the sector, this deal will invest more than £150m across the lifecycle of creative businesses.

March 2018

1. Alexander Schlegela, et al. NeuroImage. “The Artist Emerges: Visual Art Learning Alters Neural Structure and Function.” 2015. United States.

This study investigated the impact of visual art training on young adults’ behaviour and changes in brain activity. The study found that the art students became more creative via the reorganization of prefrontal white matter but did not find any significant changes in perceptual ability or related neural activity in the art students relative to the control group.

 

2. Simon P. Landry and François Champoux. Brain and Cognition. “Musicians React Faster and Are Better Multisensory Integrators.” 2017. Canada.

This study aimed to investigate whether long-term musical training improves unisensory (audio or tactile) and multisensory (audio and tactile) processing capacities. It found that musical training improves ability for single and multiple sensory systems.

 

3. David Gerry, Andrea Unrau, and Laurel J. Trainor. Developmental Science. “Active Music Classes in Infancy Enhance Musical, Communicative and Social Development.” 2012. Canada.

To understand the developmental impact of active participation in music, this study worked with two groups of six-month old infants who attended music-based sessions with teachers and their parents. The results indicate that (1) infants can engage in meaningful musical training when appropriate pedagogical approaches are used, (2) active musical participation in infancy enhances culture-specific musical acquisition, and (3) active musical participation in infancy impacts social and communication development.

 

4. Paul M Camic, Sabina Hulbert, and Jeremy Kimmel. Journal of Health Psychology. “Museum Object Handling: A Health-Promoting Community-Based Activity for Dementia Care.” United Kingdom. 2017.

The authors of this study propose that the heritage sector could have a role to play in the wellbeing of people with dementia. For most people with early- to middle-stage dementia, handling museum objects in a supportive group environment increases subjective wellbeing and should be considered part of a health promotion strategy in dementia care.

 

5. Eleanor D. Brown, et. al. Child Development. “Can the Arts Get Under the Skin? Arts and Cortisol for Economically Disadvantaged Children.” 2016. United States

This study followed more than 300 four year-olds attending a specialised Head Start preschool program in Philadelphia that incorporated an arts enrichment program. Implications of the study concern the impact of arts on cortisol for children facing poverty risks.

February 2018

1. Victoria Atec-Amestoy and Anna Villarroya. Social Observatory of “La Caixa.” “Cultural Participation and Wellbeing.” 2018. Spain.

Culture plays an important role in constructing and consolidating the bases for social cohesion and inclusion and for individual and collective wellbeing. The fourth issue of the Dossier from the Social Observatory of “la Caixa” analyses the factors that determine the cultural participation of citizens and reflects on how to guarantee equal conditions for such participation.

 

2. John Knell and Alison Whitaker. Arts Council England. “Participatory Metrics Report.” 2016. United Kingdom.

Culture Counts, working with Arts Council England, developed a short list of cultural organisations that were invited to take part in this participatory metrics strand.  The aim was to not only improve the metrics and check their alignment with the quality principles but also to analyse the extent to which they were grouping together in natural clusters, in terms of which aspects of the participatory process and associated outcomes they were measuring. Eleven cultural organisations within this strand carried out 24 evaluations collectively.

 

3. Riikka Anttonen et. al. Sibelius Academy. “Managing Art Projects with Societal Impact.” 2016. Estonia.

This Study Book presents the multiple dimensions of societal impact of arts projects and to provide methods on areas such as impact design, leadership or evaluation. The book is particularly called a ‘study book’, aiming not to give direct answers, but to open avenues for students and practitioners to reflect and learn to create their own way of managing art project with societal impact.

 

4. Shared Intelligence, The Mighty Creatives, and Sarah Pickthall. Arts Council England. “Testing the Accessibility of Arts Council England’s Quality and Participatory Metrics.” 2017. United Kingdom.

Arts Council England’s system of Quality and Participatory Metrics is a new tool designed to gather opinion data from audiences and participants in arts experiences. Each ‘metric’ consists of a dimension, the specific aspect of a production that is being measured, and a statement which is presented to respondents who are asked the extent they agree or disagree. Each metric statement has been designed to test a particular aspect or dimension of ‘quality’.

 

5. Bronwyn Mauldin. Los Angeles County Arts Commission. “Research & Evaluation at the Los Angeles County Arts Commission: 2016-17 Report.” 2017. United States.

Report from the LA Arts commission on the 2016-17 Research and Evaluation Plan: what they did and why, and some key lessons learned along the way.

January 2018

1. Beatriz Garcia, Ruth Melville, and Tamsin Cox. University of Liverpool. “Creating an Impact: Liverpool’s experience as European Capital of Culture.” 2010. United Kingdom.

This report is a summary of the key findings and core messages of Impacts 08, the research programme evaluating the impacts of Liverpool, European Capital of Culture 2008 (Liverpool ECoC) on the city, the wider region and its people. Impacts 08 is a five-year joint initiative between the University of Liverpool and Liverpool John Moores University, commissioned by Liverpool City Council for the period 2005 to 2010.

 

2. Tony Newman, Katherine Curtis, and Jo Stephens. Community Development Journal. “Do community-based arts projects result in social gains?” 2003. United Kingdom.

Arts projects have become an important part of community development strategies. In addition to any creative achievements, projects are expected to have positive and measurable impacts on local social capital. Funding organizations routinely demand evidence for this, and formal evaluations of projects have become a condition of investment. However, quantifying the impact of the arts in terms of social gain presents considerable difficulties, arguably greater than in any other field of evaluation. These problems are not just methodological. They also raise the question of the extent to which creative processes can – or should – be managed and controlled.

 

3. Marilyn Smith, Rebecca Fisher, Joelle Mader. Department of Canadian Heritage. “Social Impacts and Benefits of Arts and Culture: A Literature Review.” 2016. Canada.

This literature review aims to summarize research in the areas of theory, evidence, measurement frameworks and indicators of social impacts. This study begins with an overview of key theories underlying and framing research in the area of social impacts of arts and culture. The review continues by looking at frameworks for measuring social impacts from critical and practical perspectives. This review concludes with the observation that while there is a preponderance of evidence that the arts and culture have wide-ranging, demonstrable positive social impacts and benefits, there is no consensus on how to measure these results.

 

4. Martin Turcotte. Statistics Canada. “Trends in Social Capital in Canada.” 2015. Canada.

This report examines trends for various indicators of social capital : social networks size and type, frequency of contacts with friends, civic engagement, trust in others and sense of belonging.

 

5. Meredith J. Ludwig, Andrea Boyle, and Jim Lindsay. American Institutes for Research. “Review of Evidence: Arts Integration Research Through the Lens of the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA).” 2017. United States.

The Every Student Succeeds Act of 2015 (ESSA) is a sweeping, 391-page law that transforms the federal government’s role in public education. This literature review explores research available on arts integration activities and finds 44 that could qualify for ESSA funding. Interventions, include those that use music to teach students fractions, drama to help improve vocabulary and dance to teach kindergarteners to read.

Everything you (n)ever wanted to know about theory of change: an advanced workshop on theory of change applications in the arts

With the support of the Cultural Research Network, Ian David Moss and Dr. Kim Dunphy organized a Virtual Study Group to present different perspectives and applications of theory of change.

PowerPoint Slides

Theory of change is a framework and methodology for articulating how and why a desired change or outcome can be expected to happen. It originated in the field of evaluation in response to the challenge of understanding causal factors that lead to desired community change. In the decades since, theories of change have gained widespread adoption in fields outside the arts, to support program developers and managers to be clear what they are doing and why. Even so, many arts funders, organizations, and practitioners have yet to make use of this tool, despite seeking and spending public and philanthropic resources on the basis of change they seek to instigate or support.

In this hybrid workshop/discussion, presenters Ian David Moss and Kim Dunphy will share insights from their experiences using theory of change as researchers and advisors to cultural organizations, in different countries and professional contexts. Kim and Ian will discuss innovations in theory of change methodology and use that they have encountered or pioneered and welcome a lively dialogue with audience members throughout. The session is primarily aimed at researchers and others interested in introducing or deepening the use of theory of change into their practice.

 

Chair/Moderator: Dr. Natalia Grincheva, Research Fellow, Research Unit in Public Cultures, University of Melbourne.

Presenters:

Ian David Moss one of the US arts sector’s leading practitioners of theory of change.  As a consultant working with grantmakers, government agencies, and impact investors, he specializes in the alignment of evidence and strategy within large institutions and across complex ecosystems. Over the past decade, strategic frameworks that Ian helped create have guided the distribution of nearly $100 million in grants by some of the largest arts funders in the US. Ian was also a significant influence guiding Cincinnati-based ArtsWave in aligning $10 million/year in regional arts funding with a transformative new focus on impact. ArtsWave is still using a version of this framework to drive its grantmaking seven years later. Ian is the founder of Createquity, a think tank and online publication investigating the most important issues in the arts and what we can do about them, as well as the Cultural Research Network. He holds BA and MBA degrees from Yale University and is based in Washington, DC.

 

Dr. Kim Dunphy is a Research Fellow at the University of Melbourne (Australia)’s, Creative Arts Therapy Research Unit. Her research interests focus on change that can be effected through arts participation and how that can be understood and measured. Recent publications include chapter in Oxford Handbook of Community Music on theorising arts participation as a social change mechanism, her PhD thesis on the participatory arts in social change in Timor-Leste and co-edited collection Making Culture Count: the politics of cultural measurement (Palgrave, 2015) including her chapter proposing a holistic approach to evaluation of outcomes of arts engagement. Kim also works as consultant for the Cultural Development Network (CDN), Melbourne, Australia, an organisation that supports local government to assist local communities to make and express their own culture. CDN leads a national project across Australia on cultural development planning, where arts agencies, including state and local governments, are supported to develop theories of change for their arts program delivery and funding programs.